Prinicples of exercise training

The development of a progressive and successful exercise program should include the following principles:

  • Periodization
  • Overload 
  • Reversibility
  • Progression
  • Individualization
  • Specificity

If I was to work with a Ice Hockey player to create an exercise program , I would first look at how we could use periodization. Periodization consists of activity,rest,frequency,intensity and duration within the training program. We look at each day, week, and month of training. Altered across a macrocycle to keep goals set for preseason, in season and off season.

Overload Principle is exposing the body’s muscles to more training stress. An example could be track runners  , running faster and longer than their normal pace with hopes of improving sport endurance.

Reversibility would be considered lack of training or too much inactivity. An example could be a powerlifter notices their deadlift is not as heavy or they are not as strong as they think their lift should be. Turns out they took 4 weeks off from training.

Progression is a gradual increase in training stress to overload the muscle to adapt to current training. Your diet is on point, your energy levels are high and today is leg day. Last week you did squats for 10 reps at 220lbs. This week you did 220lbs for 12 reps. Now it may be time to increase to a higher weight so you can struggle to get 10 reps again.

Individualization is training specifically designed for each individual’s unique position in sport. A training program that works for a hockey player may not transfer for a linebacker in football. Based on the individual’s differences in their sport.

Specificity can be  sport specific movements and skills. A hockey player needs to work on skating skills,shooting skills,passing skills, stick handling skills and more. As most sports have power and endurance in common the player should be working on sport specific skills to enhance their play.

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